The Entre Series is a set of training tools helping various target groups become more enterprising. It has been developed by Passion for Perfection, an accredited cooperating partner of the Deutsche Gesellshaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), and the Philippine Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) in implementing Competency Based Economies through the Formation of Entrepreneurs (CEFE) in the country.

The CEFE philosophy cites experience as the best teacher so we designed different tool kits that target various groups like farmers, urban poor, fisher folk, handicraft workers, and others.

CEFE interventions stimulate events that transform the training room into a microcosm of the real world faced by these target groups. The technique enables participants to discover for themselves the value of proactive life paradigms. They learn the implications of:

  • Planning and budgeting money and time
  • Optimum use of their resources
  • Investment options
  • Maintaining a positive cash flow
  • Keeping records
  • Negotiating with buyers, suppliers, and neighbours
  • Taking initiative in life

Sample Lessons Around the Entre Series Games

  • The Balance Sheet
  • Interpreting Financial Statements for Decision Making
  • Break-Even Analysis
  • Cash Budget
  • Farm Inventories
  • Depreciation in Farm Accounting
  • Unusual Losses of the Farm
  • Risk Insurance
  • Farm Productivity
  • Market Research
  • Supply-Demand Analysis
  • Negotiating with Buyers and Suppliers
  • Preparing Contracts
  • Cooperative Establishment and Management
  • Credit-Selling / Buying on Account
  • Accounting System for a Small Manufacturing Business
  • Production Cycle (Farming, Fishing, etc)
  • Entrepreneurship
  • Looking at Farming as a Business
  • Personal Development / Life Planning
  • Focus on Gender Issues
  • Entity Concept: The Farm Family and Farm Business
  • Record Keeping: Cash book
  • Record Keeping: Double Entry Bookkeeping
  • Non-Financial Farm Records
  • Chart of Accounts
  • Accounting System in Farm Business
  • Record Keeping: The Journal
  • Combined-Cash Journal
  • The Ledger
  • The Trial Balance
  • The Income Statement
  • The Cash Flow Statement



MODULE 1: Basic Farming Cycle


  • Explain the business cycle as applied to the farm business;
  • Practice proper allocation of funds for business and personal expenses;
  • Analyze the importance of maintaining positive cash flow;
  • Analyze the importance of keeping accurate financial records; and
  • Operate and manage a farm business profitably.


In this module, participants are divided into 6 families who farm 3 hectares of land. Activities include planning, acquisition of equipment, land preparation, procurement of materials, spending for family and community needs, harvesting and selling of produce. These take place in a span of 8 months, directed by the facilitator. Unpredictable life events occur, and these represent unexpected calamities, expenses and changes in family circumstances. Families compare their profits at the end of the module.

MODULE2: Negotiation and Cooperativism


  • Practice maintaining positive cash flow;
  • Keep accurate financial records;
  • Operate and manage a multi-crop farm business profitably
  • Formulate strategies to adapt to price fluctuations in the market;
  • Practice effective negotiation skills to obtain a good price for farm products; and
  • Explore the value of a farmers' cooperative.


Participants are divided into 7 groups. The first six can be the same farming families from Module 1 and an additional group is formed out of those who wish to engage in trading of farm products as "middlemen". Cooperatives may also be formed by any group consisting of five members, engaging in supply of fertilizers, pesticides, credit or marketing. The farmers produce any one or a combination of rice, corn, vegetables, fruits, or strawberries on their land. The module lasts for 8 months, ending in the payment of income taxes to government. The winning family is that which registers the highest return on investment.

MODULE 3: Processing of Products


  • Operate and manage a food-processing business profitably;
  • Formulate strategies to adapt to price fluctuations in the market;
  • Practice effective negotiation skills to obtain a good price for one's products; and
  • Realize the importance of adding value to one's products.


Farmers face additional options: continue with traditional farming, or process their produce into finished goods, or give up farming and sell their land at a high price. Farmers who go into food processing have to submit a rudimentary business plan which facilitators rate of viability. Prices commanded in the market are dependent on the viability ratings obtained.

MODULE 4: Livestock Production


  • Operate and manage a livestock business profitably;
  • Explain the value of investing in modern technology and scientific;
  • Research to modernize and achieve breakthrough in the livestock industry; and
  • To explore the advantages and risks of export business.


Apart from regular farming and food processing, the farming groups are encouraged to go into livestock production business either for the domestic or export markets.

The EntreFish Game allows families to earn money easily (if they exhibit even minimum enterprising abilities) so that they have enough funds to capitalize growth. This is designed to elicit insights as to why they have not been as successful in real life. Conclusions often include their lack of life vision savings.

MODULE 1: Basic Fishing Cycle


Participants are divided into six fishing families. Each family consists of 4 members - father, mother, and two children.

Families decide when, how, and where to fish as well as what fishing equipment to invest on. Outcomes are affected by life events ("Dagok ng Buhay" are drawn from a deck of lifecards) as well as weather and fishing conditions (determined on basis of probabilities). Personal and business expenses are paid in cash; loans are available from the bank or from neighbours at any time. Incomes can be improved if participants plan on the basis of information, for which they have to spend additionally.


MODULE2: Negotiation and Cooperativism


Up to two competing fish dealers may be formed. One comes from a fishing family; the other may be a trading cooperative out of any group of four families. Participants practice effective negotiation skills to obtain a good price for fish products. They get to concretely experience the impact of supply and demand on the price of fish catch.


MODULE 3: Fish Processing Business


The third module allows participants to explore the potentials of using fish catch as raw materials for establishing a processing business. They formulate strategies to adapt to price fluctuations in the market.


MODULE 4: Aquaculture Business


This module focuses on the value of investing in modern technology and scientific research to modernize and achieve break-through in the fishing industry, and to realize the advantages and risks of export business.


  • Entrepreneurship training for handicraft manufacturers
  • Sustainable development
  • Environmental protection
  • Income generating projects for farm-based workers
  • Cooperativism

MODULE 1: Substinence Farming

The class is divided into six rural families of four members each. All are engaged in farming. However due to lack of resources and modern farming techniques, their productivity is low and they cannot escape the poverty cycle. They realize that subsistence farming of a small plot of land may not be enough for a rural-based worker to achieve financial stability in life.


MODULE 2: Handicrafts Business

The government wants to alleviate the poverty condition of the rural people. To do this, it encourages the families people to engage in income generating projects, particularly handicrafts-making as a means to augment income. The male head of family continues with farming work. The female head of family engages in handicraft manufacturing activity. The farm families realize that there is greater potential for income in handicraft production than in subsistence farming.

When the handicraft business increases in size, the family may give greater priority to the business than to farming. The male head of family, who used to concentrate on farming, may take a greater role in the handicraft business. Ambitions to be serious in handicraft production may be stimulated.

However, if the families destroy the environment by indiscriminate harvesting of raw materials from the forest, shortage occurs and the price of these materials increases. The risk of environmental destruction from floods and droughts increase. The families have to deal shrewdly with the loan shark or the bank so as not to fall into financial misery.

The module therefore highlights two important issues::

  • A handicrafts business can alleviate the poverty situation of rural people;
  • People need to address sustainable development and environmental protection even as they pursue development.


MODULE 3: Law of Supply and Demand and Negotiation

The farm families begin to practice sustainable development. They engage in replanting of the forests. The supply of raw materials increases and prices stabilize. The selling price for farm products and handicrafts fluctuate according to the monthly demand. The middleman comes into the picture and offers a better price than the public market. The craftsmen have to practice good negotiation skills in order to get a good price from the middlemen. They also learn to invest in research to obtain the best possible price for their products.


MODULE 4: Craftsmen's Cooperative

To study how a craftsmen's cooperative can help rural-based people obtain the best possible advantage in terms of marketing, technology, productivity, etc. The farm families learn to organize a craftsmen's cooperative in order to protect their interest. If they practice food management skills and time management the cooperative becomes a great business advantage, otherwise it may only add to their burden. Through a well-managed cooperative, they get an optimum price for their products and are able to avail of modern technology. This leads to great financial prosperity for all the members.


MODULE 5: Trade Fair and Exporting

The government provides assistance to craftsmen to inject innovation into their products as well as to join a trade fair. Big-time local and foreign buyers come in. They make big volume orders but they require improved consistent quality for their products. The craftsmen, through investment in modern technology, as well as division of labor are able to face the challenge. They go to exporting. They obtain tremendous sales. But they may become too complacent and overconfident. Through their own carelessness, they could experience terrible business disaster. They inject improvement in their business practices and thus attain their business goals.


  • Achievement motivation training
  • Introduction to entrepreneurship
  • Training of the urban poor
  • Motivation of employees to go to business
  • Business improvement courses


MODULE 1: Employment

The participants will play the role of employees and squatters. Because of their low, fixed salaries, they will not be able to escape poverty. They will realize the futility of employment to attain financial prosperity. The module can get them to reflect on how the poor can effectively improve their economic situation.


MODULE 2: Copycat Entrepreneurship

The participants will start their own business through government loans. But because they do not innovate, they saturate the market with the same uncreative products. They end up with a huge inventory of unsold products and they could not pay their loan interest. Their situation becomes worse than during employment.


MODULE 3: Innovative Entrepreneurship

The participants are encouraged by government to innovate. Because of this, they are able to capture a big market share. They obtain huge sales. They are able to meet all their financial obligations. They are able to buy their own house and lot. They may even build mansions and palaces. They get to appreciate the value of injecting innovation and creativity in entrepreneurship.


MODULE 4: Export Entrepreneurship

The participants go to export business. If they are not careful with the many documentation requirements, their export venture may end in terrible financial disaster. But if they are prudent and have attention to details, they will make it really big. They appreciate the pitfalls of export business.

MODULE 1: The Entrepreneur's Role

In at least two rounds of the exercise, participants are organized to play the role of plain citizen, entrepreneur, or government leader. In the end, they:

  • Appreciate the value of entrepreneurship in society's development;
  • Analyze the critical role of various stakeholders in society for enterprise promotion; and
  • Analyze the conditions required for entrepreneurship to thrive.


MODULE 2: The Banker's Role

In at least two rounds of the exercise, participants experience the impact of decisions and actions of government leaders, bankers, entrepreneurs, and citizens on their economic standing. At the end of the session, participants will:

  • Appreciate the value of entrepreneurship in society's development as well as in the sustainability of a banks' operations,
  • Analyze the critical role of the various stakeholders (especially banks) in society for the promotion of entrepreneurship,
  • Analyze the conditions required for entrepreneurship to thrive in society; and
  • Identify the duties and responsibilities of bankers in assisting entrepreneurs to thrive in society.


MODULE 3: The Government Officer's Role

In this exercise, the focus is on the impact of promotional actiities undertaken by government leaders and officers to promote entrepreneurship in their communities.

At the end of the session, participants will:

  • Analyze the critical role of various stakeholders in society (especially government) for the promotion of entrepreneurship,
  • Analyze the conditions required for entrepreneurship to thrive; and
  • Identify the duties and responsibilities of government in assisting entrepreneurs.